Statewatch hat eine EU-Papier veröffentlicht, welches der High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration am 17. September 2019 zur Diskussion vorlag.

[…] Migrants in Libya, routes and migrant smuggling networks

Libya is one of the main countries of departure to the EU for migrants travelling along the Central Mediterranean route. The number of arrivals viathe Central Mediterranean route dropped significantly after the summer of 2017 and has stayed relatively lowsince then. The total number of arrivals via the Central Mediterranean route so far in 2019 (up to 18 August) is 6126, which is a 69% decrease compared to lastyear. Departures from Libya have fallen by a similar rate. So far in 2019, Libya has been theonly country of departure for arrivals in Malta, but for Italy the main country of departure has been Tunisia. According to statistics compiled by the Italian Ministry of the Interior, in 2019 (up to 18 August) around 25% of the migrants arriving inItaly departed from Libya, downfrom 56% in 2018 and a significant change compared to 2017,when almost 90% of the migrants arriving inItaly had departedfrom Libya. The decrease in the number of arrivals from Libya inItaly is substantial: from over 107000 arrivals in 2017 to around 13000 in 2018 and so far (up to18 August) around 1100 in 2019.

Despite the decrease in arrivals, the Central Mediterranean route remains dangerous for migrants trying to cross to Europe. On 25 July 2019, about 150 migrantsdied in a shipwreck off the coast ofLibya while trying to reach Europe. It was the largest loss of life in the Mediterranean so far this year. According to IOM, 578 people hadreportedly died or gone missing in the Central Mediterranean by 15 August 2019.

Zur libyschen Küstenwache heißt es:

The activities of the Libyan Coast Guard (LCG) in rescuing or intercepting migrants off the Libyan coast have continued despite the conflict that has been ongoing since the beginning of April. According to UNHCR, the LCG has so far rescued or intercepted 5280 peopleat sea in 2019(upto16 August)and brought them back to Libya. This is nearly equal to the number of migrants who have reached the EU from Libya so far in 2019 (6126). The LCG is thus now intercepting or rescuing a higher proportionof migrants departing from Libya than inthe past. However, the situation remains highly volatile and it couldchange rapidly depending on the internal dynamics within Libya or external/international dynamics and the positioning of the international community. […]

The activities of the Libyan Coast Guard (LCG) in rescuing or intercepting migrants off the Libyan coast have continued despite the conflict that has been ongoing since the beginning of April. According to UNHCR, the LCG has so far rescued or intercepted 5280 peopleat sea in 2019(upto16 August)and brought them back to Libya. This is nearly equal to the number of migrants who have reached the EU from Libya so far in 2019 (6126). The LCG is thus now intercepting or rescuing a higher proportionof migrants departing from Libya than inthe past. However, the situation remains highly volatile and it couldchange rapidly depending on the internal dynamics within Libya or external/international dynamics and the positioning of the international community.

Die Situation der Migrant*innen in Libyen wird wie folgt beschrieben:

Libya has been an attractive destination country for migrants from North and sub-Saharan Africa for decades. Already in the 1970s migrants travelledto Libya to work,mainly in construction or agriculture,and before the outbreak of the civil war in 2011 Libya was a relatively stable country in the region. The fall of Gaddafi and the armed conflict that followed have made the situation of migrants and refugees extremely difficult. The majority of refugees and migrants do not have access to residence permits, which puts them at risk of detention in the overflowing detention facilities. The IOM estimates that currently there are between 700000 and 1million migrantsin Libya. 94% of identified migrants come from 27 different African countries and 6% from Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Atthe beginning of 2019, the main countries of origin of migrants in Libya were Niger (20%), Egypt (15%), Chad (14%), Sudan (12%) andNigeria (10%). As of 14August, there are 50821 refugees and asylum seekers registered with the UNHCR in Libya.

A study by REACH and the UNHCR identified three main entry points to Libya in 2018. The first route, used mostly by West African migrants, is via Algeria and its north-eastern or south-eastern border with Libya. The second is via Niger or Chad and through the city of Sebha in the south of Libya. The third is the eastern route,used mainly by Central and East Africans,arriving inthe region of Alkufra through both Chad and Sudan. According to thesame study, all interviewed refugees and migrants who intended to travel toItaly reported using smugglers, which shows the importance of tackling the migrant-smuggling networks to manage the migratory situation in Libya. Previously there werewell-established migrant-smuggling networks run by various different groups along the Libyan coast. However, recently the dynamics of the people-smuggling industry in Libya have changed. According to a study by Global Initiative, armed groups are no longer protecting people-smuggling activities, which has driven smuggling operations underground. This has limited the number of departures but also putmigrants and refugees at an even higher risk of abuse.

Es folgt eine Liste der EU-Programme zum Migrationsmanagement in der gesamten Region.

Zur aktuellen Situation in Libyen heißt es:

The current political standoff and its associated economic and social outcomes impose severe hardship on Libyan citizens and migrants, reinforced by the grim outlook. Although there is no systematic study ofpoverty and very little evidence on the current well-being of Libyan households, it is clear that conditions are an obstacle to poverty reduction. Worsening economic conditions contribute to poor public services, erratic power supply and recurrent food shortages, which affect Libyan citizens as well as migrants

Es folgt eine Aufstellung des finanziellen Engagements der EU:

The EU has provided significant supportto Libya since the beginning of the crisis.As for migration and community stabilisation related projects, the EU currently has a package in place worth close to €355 million through the EU Trust Fund for Africa to Libya covering 21 projects, implemented by UN agencies, EU Member States and NGOs. This makes the North of Africa Window of the EU Trust Fund for Africa the biggest EU contributor to Libya and the most important instrument for funding external and migration action in Libya since the inception of the Trust Fund.

In addition, a package is in place of close to €70 million in bilateral support to Libyain 23 projects across several sectors, such as: civil society; governance; health; economy, youth and education; and support to the political process, security and mediation activities, mainly through the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) and the Instrument Contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP).

The EU supports the Libyans in addressing security challenge sthrough the EU Trust Fund for Africa, Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions and operations, EUNAVFOR MED Operation Sophia, the EU Border Assistance Mission (EUBAM) to Libya and the EU Liaison and Planning Cell (EULPC).The Commission has provided humanitarian fundingworth €10 million in 2017 and €10.8 million in 2016. Additional protection-related projectsare implemented under the Regional Development and Protection Programme, co-funded by the Commission. The Commission Operational Committee of the EUTF for Africa North of Africa Window (EUTF-NOA) has approved five new migration-related programmes in the North of Africa totaling €61.5 million and on 2 July two new Libya Actions of a volume of €41 million. These new programmes adopted under the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa will reinforce ongoing actions to protect and assist refugees and vulnerable migrants in North of Africa especially in Libya, and improve the living conditions and resilience of Libyans as well as foster economic opportunities, labour migration and mobility in the North of Africa countries.

Zu den Lagern heißt es in der Vorlage:

After the airstrikes, the Tajoura detention centre was closed on 10 July and 482 survivors of the attack were moved to the UNHCR Gathering and Departure Facility (GDF) in Tripoli. Shortly after being emptied the Tajoura detention centre was again filled with migrants and refugees rescued by the LCG. According to the UNHCR, the GDF is now hosting 1005 individuals and is badly overcrowded.There are official and unofficial detention facilities. The official detention facilities are under the control of the Libyan Directorate for Combatting Illegal Migration (DCIM). Libya does not appear to have an official catalogue of immigration detentionfacilities. Estimates ofthe number of detention facilities vary from17 to 35, the majority of them being official facilities. According to the IOM, the estimated overall population in DCIM detention centres is around 5000,and around 3700 of thosedetained are held in detention centres in conflict areas. Some of the unofficial centres are run by militias. The government has continued to arbitrarily detain migrants, many of whom are in a vulnerable position. The centres suffer from overcrowding and the conditions are poor. In particular, there are difficulties in relationto sanitary facilities and food and water supply. Severe human rights violations have been widely reported. Some of the detention centres are alleged of having links to human trafficking. There is no proper registration system formigrants. Serious casesof corruption and bribery in the centres have been detected. Anothermajor issue is that ofmigrants and refugees rescuedor intercepted at sea being transferred to detention centres and the lack of traceability, transparency and accountability. Limited registration is carriedout by the LCGat disembarkation points but disappearances are regularly reportedby humanitarian actors. The Libyan government has not taken steps to improve the situation in the centres. The government’s reluctanceto address the problems raises the question of its own involvement. […]

The AU-EU-UN Task Force on Libyawas established in Abidjan 29 November 2017in the margins of the AU-EU summit.It was a concrete stepto address jointly the dramatic situation of migrants and refugees in particular in Libya. […]

The Emergency Transit Mechanism (ETM) in Nigeris currently close to its agreed maximum capacity of 1500 people,sinceas of 19 August it is hosting1 194 people. Also, the Nigerien authorities have recently communicated to the UNHCR that they wish to lower the agreed capacity to 1000.

According to the UNHCR, fromthe start of the evacuation operation from Libya to Niger in late 2017to5July2019,3924 people(including unaccompanied children) wereevacuated: 2911 to Niger, 710 to Italy and 303 to Romania.

The Gathering and Departure Facility (GDF)inTripoli, through which evacuationsare taking place, including to the ETM in Niger, was opened in December 2018. It is also at full capacity, currently hosting 1005 people.

Major challenges also stemfrom the unwillingness of the Libyan authorities to cooperate to enable faster evacuations from the detention centres and to provide safe alternatives. It has proven very difficult, if not impossible, for experts from theIOM and the UNHCR to enter certain areas of Libya. The reluctance of officials to cooperate is closelylinked to the widely reported human rights violations that take place in the detention centres and to the fact that the facilities form a profitable business model for the current Libyan government.

The Rwandan government has agreed to resettle hundreds of migrants from Libya, starting with 500. The exact timing is not yet known. The GDF in Libya and the ETM in Nigerare currently attheir maximum capacity. Only a handful of countries, such as Italy and Canada, resettle refugees directly from Libya. The Canadian immigration authorities conduct refugee status determination via video calls to Libya.

Download Libya and the surrounding area: current situation andneed for immediate action | 04.09.2019

Auf Spiegel Online kommentieren Steffen Lüdtge und Maximilian Popp das EU-Paper am Abend des 18.09.:

12 Seiten. So viel Platz benötigen EU-Diplomaten, um klarzumachen, welches schreckliche Schicksal Migranten in libyschen Internierungslagern droht – und wer davon profitiert. Das Papier diente am Dienstag als Grundlage für eine Debatte in der Arbeitsgruppe des Ministerrats zu Asyl und Migration. Es trägt den sperrigen Titel: „Libyen und Umgebung: Aktuelle Situation und Notwendigkeit sofortiger Maßnahmen“.

Die grauenvollen Zustände in den Lagern sind lange bekannt. Der Report macht jedoch auch deutlich, wie hoch der moralische Preis ist, den Europa für die Kooperation mir Tripolis zahlt. Die mangelnde Bereitschaft der libyschen Regierung, das Problem anzugehen, werfe die Frage auf, ob sie selbst involviert sei, schreiben die Autoren. Der Widerwille der libyschen Beamten hänge mit den Menschenrechtsverletzungen in den Lagern zusammen „und mit dem Fakt, dass die Einrichtungen ein profitables Geschäft für die aktuelle libysche Regierung darstellen.“
Zumindest die Autoren des Briefings sind sich also sicher, dass die libysche Regierung finanziell von den Internierungslagern profitiert, in denen Migranten gefoltert, vergewaltigt und zum Kriegsdienst gezwungen werden.

Kritiker sagen, so vermeide die EU Bilder von leidenden Flüchtlingen. Wer Migranten schon in Nordafrika abfängt, muss in Europa weniger schwierige Entscheidungen treffen. Wenn nicht immer wieder Videos und Augenzeugenberichte aus den Lagern dringen würden, wüssten viele Europäer bis heute nicht, was hinter ihren Mauern passiert. In Libyen gibt es Dutzende offizielle und inoffizielle Lager. Die inoffiziellen werden von Milizen kontrolliert, nicht immer haben Hilfsorganisationen Zugang.
Wie Menschenhändler in Libyen mit Migranten Geld machen, hat der SPIEGEL im August berichtet. Inner- und außerhalb der Internierungslager sperren sie Migranten ein, zwingen die Männer und Frauen dazu, ihre Verwandten im Ausland anzurufen. Die müssen Geld schicken, um Schläge oder Elektroschocks zu stoppen.

Laut Amnesty International finden die Erpressungen zum Teil auch in Migrantenlagern statt, die von der libyschen Einheitsregierung betrieben werden. „Korrupte Soldaten versuchen, damit Geld zu machen“, sagte Matteo de Bellis von Amnesty International. Die Situation für Flüchtlinge hat sich noch einmal verschlechtert, seit in Libyen im Frühjahr Krieg zwischen der Regierung in Tripolis und den Truppen des Warlords Khalifa Haftar ausgebrochen ist.
Der Bericht des EU-Rats zeigt, wie problematisch das Experiment der Europäer in Libyen ist. Zwar kommen weitaus weniger Menschen in Italien und Malta an, seit die EU mit der libyschen Küstenwache kooperiert. Die Lage im Land und in den Internierungslagern ist allerdings so skandalös, dass auch die EU nicht mehr wegschauen kann. Der Rat ruft in dem Papier die Mitgliedstaaten ausdrücklich dazu auf, größere Anstrengungen zu unternehmen und Lösungen zu entwickeln.

EU-Rat: Libya and the surrounding area: current situation