Since the 1990s, Germany promoted the externalisation of the border regime in Central and Eastern Europe. In the beginning, there have been a lot of contradictions. The Polish worker activist Lech Walesa, who can be accused – later as Polish president –  of servility to Western governments, responded to the German demand for a repressive Polish border regime: „We will not stop these people [from Eastern Europe and Asia], we are not capable of doing that. We will form a espalier and send them to you“ (Der Spiegel 27.01.1992).

Here some FFM-publications about the first externalisation regime of the Fortress Europe in the 1990s:

[EN 1997] Germany – Poland – Ukraine: The Domino Effect

[DE 1998] Deutsch-polnische Polizeikooperation. Flüchtlingspolitik als Schrittmacher

[EN 2003] The new border regime at the Bug river The east of Poland and the PHARE programmes

[DE 2005] Polen: Flüchtlingsnotstand – aber wo sind die Flüchtlinge?

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More publications to Polands Eastern Border under

FFM 1995-2005

Germany, Poland and the Domino Effect of the Fortress Europe